What is glassy state and rubbery state?

The crystalline portion remains crystalline during the glass transition. At a low temperature the amorphous regions of a polymer are in the glassy state. In this state the molecules are frozen on place. The polymer now is in its rubbery state. The rubbery state lends softness and flexibility to a polymer.

What do you mean by glassy state in physical pharmaceutics?

12. Glassy states: The glassy state of materials refers to a nonequilibrium, solid state, such as is typical of inorganic glasses, synthetic noncrystalline polymers and food components. Characteristics of the glassy state include transparency, solid appearance and brittleness.

What is glassy state of polymers?

Glassy polymers are characterized by their high stiffness and amorphous non-crystalline structure. These properties make them size selective in their dense form and also mechanically sufficiently resistant to exist as porous flat film or hollow fibre membranes.

What are glassy solids?

The solids in which atoms and molecules are not arranged in definite and regular manner are called glassy or amorphous solids, e.g., glass, rubber, sulphur etc.

What is Tg and TM?

The terms TG (or Tg) and TM (or Tm) give two important parameters of polymers. These are temperatures at which the texture of polymer changes. These values are characteristic features of polymers. TG refers to the glass transition temperature whereas TM refers to the melting temperature.

What is cold crystallization?

“Cold crystallization” is defined as an exothermic crystallization process taking place upon heating from a glassy, amorphous phase, which is often observed for polymeric materials below the melting temperature.(1−4) Flexible worm-like macromolecular chains with various backbone conformations reserve the large part of …

What is states of matter in physical pharmaceutics?

Gaseous, liquids and crystalline solids are the three primary state of matter of phases. The molecules atoms and ions in the solid state are held in close proximity by intermolecular, inter atomic or ionic the atoms in the solid can oscillate only about fixed positions.

What are the changes in the state of matter?

Points of Change

Fusion/Melting Freezing Vaporization/Boiling Condensation Sublimation Deposition Solid to a Liquid Liquid to a Solid Liquid to a Gas Gas to a Liquid Solid to a Gas Gas to a Solid

What do the terms rubbery and glassy describe?

The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials) from a hard and relatively brittle “glassy” state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.

What are the differences between glassy and rubbery polymers?

Rubbery polymers typically have lower solubility coefficients than glassy polymers. Rubbery polymers generally have higher diffusion coefficients than glassy polymers. Glassy polymers dominate the upper bound due to higher solubility coefficients.

What is glassy structure?

Glass structures are modeled by emulating the traditional experimental melt-quench process for glass production, where a melt is gradually cooled until the system “freezes” and transforms into a glass. From: Encyclopedia of Materials: Technical Ceramics and Glasses, 2021.

What is the glass transition temperature?

The glass transition temperature is the temperature range where the polymer substrate changes from a rigid glassy material to a soft (not melted) material, and is usually measured in terms of the stiffness, or modulus.

What’s the meaning of the glassy state of matter?

The glassy state of matter: Its definition and ultimate fate. The objective of this communication is to clarify the meanings of solid and liquid, to dwell on the ultimate fate of glass in the limit of infinitely long time, and to propose a modern, improved definition of glass.

Which is the best description of the state of glass?

The first improved definition is: “Glass is a nonequilibrium, non-crystalline state of matter that appears solid on a short time scale but continuously relaxes towards the liquid state.” This is an intuitive description for the general public and young students.

Which is the ultimate fate of a glass?

The glassy state appears solid on a short time scale but continuously relaxes toward the liquid state. A new definition of glass is proposed as a unique nonequilibrium state of matter. The ultimate fate of a glass is to crystallize, i.e., to solidify.

Which is better a crystalline solid or a glassy state?

The expansion coefficient for the glassy state is roughly equivalent to that of the crystalline solid. If slower cooling rates are used, the increased time for structural relaxation (or intermolecular rearrangement) to occur may result in a higher density glass product.