## How do you calculate tailing factor in HPLC?

The tailing factor is determined by drawing a perpendicular line from the peak centre to the baseline of the peak. Then the peak width and the front half-width are measured for the peak at 5% of the height of the peak. The tailing factor is simply the entire peak width divided by twice the front half-width.

## What is a good tailing factor in HPLC?

Acceptable Tailing A new column is considered acceptable if the As value is 0.9 – 1.2 (0.9 indicates slight fronting). In practical terms, an As value below 1.5 is usually OK to work with, and up to As = 2.0 may be acceptable depending on the separation and resolution of the peaks.

What is the difference between tailing factor and asymmetry?

Re: Taling and Symmetry The USP tailing factor is widely accepted and differs from other asymmetry calculations in that it uses the peak width at 5% of peak height divided by 2x the front width at 5%. Asymmetry is commonly calculated as the ratio of back to front width at a specified % of peak height, normally at 10%.

How do you calculate peak asymmetry?

The peak asymmetry is defined as the tail width / front width. If this is alternatively to be calculated using the formula T=(a+b)/2a, add Formula1 to the right. Double-click this and click on “formula”. The formula should now be set to (Tail Width+Front Width)/(2*Front Width).

### What is resolution in HPLC formula?

Resolution is an important HPLC performance indicator usually assessed by how quickly and how completely target components in a sample separate as they pass through a column. Resolution is measured by dividing the difference in peak retention times by the average peak width.

### What is fronting in HPLC?

Peaks fronting occurs when the sample capacity of the analytical column is exceeded, which can happen in both GC and HPLC experiments. This overloading effect results from poor sample solubility in the stationary phase, the injection of too much sample, or operating at a “k” value (capacity factor) that is too low.

How do I stop fronting in HPLC?

Volume overloading-Injecting too large of a volume can result in fronting, since it broadens the peak. You can eliminate this possibility by injecting a smaller volume.

What is symmetry in HPLC?

Symmetry factor (S, also called “tailing factor”) is a coefficient that shows the degree of peak symmetry. Caution is required since both the theoretical plate number and symmetry factor can change depending on the type of analysis and analytical conditions used. …

#### What is symmetry factor in HPLC?

Symmetry factor (S, also called “tailing factor”) is a coefficient that shows the degree of peak symmetry. Caution is required since both the theoretical plate number and symmetry factor can change depending on the type of analysis and analytical conditions used.

#### What is the resolution formula?

Equation (1) indicates that the resolution is the difference between peak retention times divided by the average peak width. In a peak with Gaussian distribution, the peak width is W = 4 σ (where σ is the standard deviation) and the peak FWHM is W0. 5h = 2.354σ.

How do I reduce fronting in HPLC?

When does tailing come and go on a HPLC?

Interfering coelution- If you have tailing only for one or two of your peaks, there may be an interfering contaminant that coelutes. If that is the case, you might see the tailing come and go, and a shoulder may appear at times.

## What are the problems of peak tailing in chromatography?

Peak Problems. Two of the analytical issues as a result of peak tailing are: Peaks with a large A s value might have a significantly reduced peak height. This affects the analysis when wide ranges of different concentrations of chemicals are being detected.

## What is the asymmetry factor for peak tailing?

Peak tailing occurs when the peak asymmetry factor (As) is greater than 1.2 — although peaks with As greater than 1.5 are acceptable for many assays. This is determined using the following equation: As = B / A; where B = peak width after the peak centre at 10% peak height; and A = peak width at baseline before the peak centre,

What is an acceptable value for peak tailing?

Either method of measuring tailing can be used – unless it is defined in a method or standard – but note the methods are not interchangeable. Since most columns exhibit some peak tailing, what is considered an acceptable A s value? A new column is considered acceptable if the A s value is 0.9 – 1.2 (0.9 indicates slight fronting).

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