How does clavulanic acid overcome resistance?

Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam drug that functions as a mechanism-based β-lactamase inhibitor. While not effective by itself as an antibiotic, when combined with penicillin-group antibiotics, it can overcome antibiotic resistance in bacteria that secrete β-lactamase, which otherwise inactivates most penicillins.

What is the target for clavulanic acid?

Clavulanic Acid is a semisynthetic beta-lactamase inhibitor isolated from Streptomyces. Clavulanic acid contains a beta-lactam ring and binds strongly to beta-lactamase at or near its active site, thereby hindering enzymatic activity.

How does b lactamase produce resistance against penicillin?

The most common mechanism of β-lactam resistance among bacteria is the production of a β-lactamase, which is an enzyme that cleaves the key structure of the antimicrobial agent, that is, the β-lactam ring. This renders the drug inactive.

What does the clavulanic acid do?

Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications called beta-lactamase inhibitors. It works by preventing bacteria from destroying amoxicillin. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

What bacteria does clavulanic acid coverage?

Clavulanate has a broad antibacterial spectrum, encompassing both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and anaerobes1,2,6–16 (Table 1). Clavulanate is least active against Pseudomonas spp. and the enterococci (MICs 125–512 mg/L), followed by members of the Enterobacteriaceae and H. influenzae (MICs 12–125 mg/L).

Why is clavulanate added to amoxicillin?

Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic. Clavulanate potassium helps prevent certain bacteria from becoming resistant to amoxicillin.

What are the disadvantages of acid resistance penicillin?

Three disadvantages to the use of penicillin G are that (1) it is degraded by gastric acid and hence when used optimally it is usually given parenterally, (2) it is destroyed by the enzyme penicillinase which is elaborated by certain organisms, and (3) its use may be associated with a relatively high incidence of …

How is clavulanic acid used to fight antibiotic resistance?

Clavulanic acid is a beta-lactamase inhibitor that is frequently combined with [ Amoxicillin] or [ Ticarcillin] to fight antibiotic resistance by preventing their degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes, broadening their spectrum of susceptible bacterial infections.

What are the starting materials for clavulanic acid?

Clavulanic acid is biosynthesized by the bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus, using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and L -arginine as the starting materials of the pathway. Although all of the intermediates of the pathway are known, the exact mechanism of each enzymatic reaction is not fully understood.

How does clavulanic acid interact with β lactamase?

However, the similarity in chemical structure allows the molecule to interact with the enzyme β-lactamase secreted by certain bacteria to confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Clavulanic acid is a suicide inhibitor, covalently bonding to a serine residue in the active site of the β-lactamase.

What is the molecular weight of clavulanic acid?

Clavulanic acid PubChem CID 5280980 Synonyms CLAVULANIC ACID Clavulanate 58001-44-8 A Molecular Weight 199.16 Date s Modify 2021-07-03 Create 2004-09-16