What do syndecans do?

Syndecans are thought to function predominantly as coreceptors for other receptors such as integrins, members of the fibroblast growth factor family, vascular endothelial cell growth factor, and transforming growth factor β, which need heparin sulfate for signaling.

Where is syndecan found?

Regulation of Syndecan Expression Syndecan-1 is expressed predominantly in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, syndecan-2 in cells of mesenchymal origin and neuronal and epithelial cells, and syndecan-3 almost exclusively in neuronal and musculoskeletal tissue, whereas syndecan-4 is found in virtually every cell type.

How many exons do the syndecan have?

5 exons
All members of the syndecan family have 5 exons.

How do Syndecan and Glypican attach to the membrane?

Syndecans are transmembrane proteins, whereas glypicans are attached to the cell surface via a GPI anchor.

What is CD138 marker?

During normal B-cell development, cells acquire expression of CD138, also known as syndecan-1 (SDC1), a marker highly specific for terminally differentiated normal plasma cells (1). CD138 is a heparin sulphate proteoglycan that controls tumor cell survival, growth, adhesion and bone cell differentiation in MM (2).

What is the difference between heparin and heparan sulfate?

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a component of the extracellular matrix. It is a glycosaminoglycan that is covalently attached to core proteins to form proteoglycans. Heparin is distinct from HS in that it is produced primarily by mast cells, whereas, HS is produced by all cell types.

What is heparan sulfate made of?

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans.

Where can the extracellular matrix be found?

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, and provides not only essential physical scaffolding for the cellular constituents but also initiates crucial biochemical and biomechanical cues that are required for tissue morphogenesis, differentiation and homeostasis …

What’s the difference in the size of the syndecans?

The difference in size of the syndecans is credited to the variable length of exon 3, which encodes a spacer domain [1, 14]. In humans, the amino acid length of syndecan 1, 2, 3 and 4 is 310, 201, 346 and 198 respectively.

What are the members of the syndecan family?

Syndecan is the family name of membrane-intercalated HSPGs. This PG family consists of four members: syndecan-1,44 syndecan-2/fibroglycan, 45 syndecan-3/N-syndecan, 46 and syndecan-4/amphiglycan/ryudocan, 47,48 all of which are expressed in the CNS.

What kind of signal sequence does a syndecan have?

Syndecans are transmembrane proteins with an N-terminal signal sequence and an ectodomain-containing consensus sequences for heparin-binding extracellular ligands including growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, cell adhesion molecules, among others.

What kind of ligands does a syndecan carry?

More specifically, these core proteins carry three to five heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains, i.e. they are proteoglycans, which allow for interaction with a large variety of ligands including fibroblast growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor -beta, fibronectin and antithrombin -1.