How does HLA cause autoimmune?

The development of protease inhibitors designed to alter the antigen presenting properties of HLA molecules, by blocking the presentation of potentially auto-antigenic peptides, could direct the immune system away from a particular antigenic motif and in turn the autoimmune disease process [37].

What are possible molecular mechanisms of autoimmunity?

Ways in which self-proteins can be altered include mutations and altered expression, posttranslational modification, covalent modifications, denaturation, native disorder or misfolding.

Which diseases are linked with HLA?

Together with genetic and molecular epidemiology, they have made it possible to establish and hypothesize the plausible mechanisms of association between HLA genetic variants and the pathophysiology of ADs, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), multiple …

Is HLA an autoimmune disease?

It is likely that a complex interaction between environmental factors and genetic background may explain why some individuals develop autoimmune diseases. HLA is a cornerstone within the immune system and it has been already associated with many non-neurological autoimmune disorders.

What are 3 mechanisms that lead to autoimmunity?

Genetic susceptibility, environmental stimuli, and defective regulation are responsible for initiating autoimmunity. Genetic polymorphisms in immune-related genes (including HLA, cytokines/receptors, and those involved in central tolerance) may lower the threshold for the activation of autoreactive T cells.

What cells are involved in autoimmune diseases?

B cells serve as APCs in autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes [61, 62].

What are the most common HLA types?

The most common haplotype combinations were: HLA-A*01, B*08, DRB1*03 and HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 for Caucasians; HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 and HLA-A*01, B*08 and DRB1*03 for Afro-Brazilians; and HLA-A*24, B*52, DRB1*15 and HLA-A*24, B*40 and DRB1*09 for Asians.

What is the difference between HLA and MHC?

“The main difference between the two groups is that MHC is often found in vertebrates, while HLA is only found in humans. To simplify, HLA is the human body’s version of MHC. Part of the responsibility of these antigens is to detect cells entering the body.

Who are the authors of mechanisms of human autoimmunity?

Mechanisms of human autoimmunity Michael D. Rosenblum, Kelly A. Remedios, and Abul K. Abbas Author informationCopyright and License informationDisclaimer Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA.

How does autoimmune disease result from genetic alterations?

Whereas a predisposition to develop most human autoimmune diseases is thought to result from polymorphisms of multiple genes involved in immune function, there are rare examples in which genetic alterations in a single gene result in fulminant autoimmunity.

How is the resolution phase of autoimmune disease defined?

All stages of autoimmune disease are thought to be associated with a failure of regulatory mechanisms, with the resolution phase defined by a partial, and in most cases, short-term ability to restore the balance of effector and regulatory responses.

How is defective regulation a cause of autoimmunity?

Defective regulation as the cause of autoimmunity. This unconventional activation of potentially self-reactive T cells may arise from either the recognition of conformational isomers of peptide/MHC or from a differential binding register of a peptide within the groove of the MHC molecule ( 27, 28 ).