What is NF-kB gene?
NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a rapidly acting primary transcription factor found in all cell types. It is involved in the cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in regulating the immunological response to infections.
What does NF-kB activate?
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
What happens when NF-kB is inhibited?
NF-κB activates the expression of cyclin D1, a positive regulator of G1-to-S-phase progression, by direct binding to multiple sites in its promoter (10). Inhibition of NF-κB activation can reduce cyclin D1 activity and subsequent phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein to result in delayed cell cycle progression.
How do you reduce NF kB?
Antioxidants such as PDTC40 and NAC41 have shown a potential to inhibit NF-κB activation either by exogeneous induction (e.g. LPS, TNFα) or hydrogen peroxide treatment. Antioxidants are likely to inhibit NF-κB by scavenging reactive oxygen intermediates involved in the NF-κB pathway42.
How do you measure NF-kB activation?
Another common method to measure NF-κB activity at the transcriptional activation level is to use a gene reporter assay, which introduces an exogenous NF-κB consensus promoter sequence linked to a measurable ‘reporter gene’ such as luciferase (18).
What inhibits the NF kB pathway?
Generally speaking, inhibition of NF-κB activation can occur by three mechanisms: (1) blockage of the incoming stimulating signal at an early stage (e.g., binding of ligand to its receptor) resulting in complete abrogation of the signal’s effect; (2) interference with a cytoplasmic step in the NF-κB activation pathway …
What is the function of NF kB?
A well-recognized function of NF-κB is regulation of inflammatory responses. In addition to mediating induction of various pro-inflammatory genes in innate immune cells, NF-κB regulates the activation, differentiation and effector function of inflammatory T cells.
What drugs inhibit NFKB?
Many of these drugs, including emetine, fluorosalan, sunitinib malate, bithionol, narasin, tribromsalan, and lestaurtinib, inhibited NF-κB signaling via inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation. Others, such as ectinascidin 743, chromomycin A3 and bortezomib utilized other mechanisms.