Can a case series be retrospective?

Case series research is a descriptive study to present patients in their natural clinical setting. The case series can be retrospective or prospective and may be consecutive or nonconsecutive depending on whether all cases presenting to the reporting authors over a period were included, or only a selection [13].

What is a case series vs cohort?

Case series study is descriptive only (no comparison group). It includes group of patients with certain disease or with abnormal sign and symptom. while cohort study include healthy people but they exposed to certain exposure and follow them for certain period to see if the outcome develop or not (incidence study).

Are case cohort studies retrospective?

Cohort studies can be retrospective or prospective. Incidence can be directly calculated from a cohort study as you begin with exposed and unexposed patients, unlike a case-control study where you start with diseased and non-diseased patients. Relative risk is the measure of effect for a cohort study.

What does retrospective case series mean?

A retrospective case series is the description of a group of cases with a new or unusual disease or treatment. With a case-control study, cases with and without the condition of interest are identified, and the degree of exposure to a possible risk factor is then retrospectively compared between the 2 groups.

What is the difference between retrospective cohort and case-control?

While retrospective cohort studies try to compare the risk of developing a disease to some already known exposure factors, a case-control study will try to determine the possible exposure factors after a known disease incidence.

What type of research is a retrospective cohort study?

Retrospective cohort studies are a type of observational research in which the investigator looks back in time at archived or self-report data to examine whether the risk of disease was different between exposed and non-exposed patients.

Is a retrospective cohort study a case-control study?

Retrospective cohort studies are NOT the same as case-control studies. Therefore, cohort studies are good for assessing prognosis, risk factors and harm. The outcome measure in cohort studies is usually a risk ratio / relative risk (RR).

What is an example of a retrospective cohort study?

An example of a retrospective cohort study will be interviewing a cohort of people who are HIV positive, ask about their lifestyle choices and medical history to study the origins of the disease.

What are the limitations of retrospective cohort study?

Retrospective studies have disadvantages vis-a-vis prospective studies: Some key statistics cannot be measured, and significant biases may affect the selection of controls. Researchers cannot control exposure or outcome assessment, and instead must rely on others for accurate recordkeeping.

What are the disadvantages of a cohort study?

Disadvantages of Prospective Cohort Studies You may have to follow large numbers of subjects for a long time. They can be very expensive and time consuming. They are not good for rare diseases. They are not good for diseases with a long latency. Differential loss to follow up can introduce bias.

What does cohort studies mean?

cohort study. An observational study in which a defined group of people (a cohort) is followed over time and outcomes are compared in subsets of the cohort who were exposed, not exposed, or exposed at different levels to an intervention or other factor of interest.

What does retrospective studies mean?

retrospective study, a study in which a search is made for a relationship between one phenomenon or condition and another that occurred in the past (e.g., the exposure to toxic agents and the rate of occurrence of disease in the exposed group compared with a control group not exposed).

What is the difference between retrospective and prospective?

Whereas retrospective memory requires only the recall of past events, prospective memory requires the exercise of retrospective memory at a time that has not yet occurred. Prospective memory is thus considered a form of “memory of the future”.