What causes acute haemolytic transfusion reaction?

The most common cause of acute hemolytic transfusion reaction is ABO incompatibility, which is typically due to human error that results in a recipient receiving the incorrect blood product. Rarely, other blood type incompatibilities can cause AHTR, the most common of which is Kidd antigen incompatibility.

When does acute hemolytic transfusion reaction occur?

Acute hemolytic reactions happen within 24 hours of transfusion and delayed hemolytic reactions happen after 24 hours. Delayed reactions usually occur two weeks after but can go up to 30 days post transfusion.

What is an acute transfusion?

Acute transfusion reactions present as adverse signs or symptoms during or within 24 hours of a blood transfusion. The most frequent reactions are fever, chills, pruritus, or urticaria, which typically resolve promptly without specific treatment or complications.

What are examples of acute transfusion reactions?

The most common signs and symptoms include fever, chills, urticaria (hives), and itching. Some symptoms resolve with little or no treatment. However, respiratory distress, high fever, hypotension (low blood pressure), and red urine (hemoglobinuria) can indicate a more serious reaction.

What is the most common cause of acute hemolytic transfusion reaction?

Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions are usually caused by ABO incompatibility. This potentially fatal complication occurs in about 1 in 30,000 transfusions. As little as 20 to 30 mL of incompatible RBCs can cause agitation, nausea/vomiting, dyspnea, fever, flushing, hypotension, tachycardia, and hemoglobinuria.

What are the signs and symptoms of hemolytic transfusion reaction?


  • Back pain.
  • Bloody urine.
  • Chills.
  • Fainting or dizziness.
  • Fever.
  • Flank pain.
  • Flushing of the skin.

What are signs of a hemolytic reaction?

How is acute transfusion reaction treated?

The route (oral or intravenous) and the dose (25-100 mg) depend on the severity of the reaction and the weight of the patient. In anaphylactic reactions, a subcutaneous injection of epinephrine (0.3-0.5 mL of a 1:1000 aqueous solution) is standard treatment.

What is the most common type of transfusion reaction?

Febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common reaction reported after a transfusion. FNHTR is characterized by fever or chills in the absence of hemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells) occurring in the patient during or up to 4 hours after a transfusion.

What happens during haemolysis?

Hemolysis is the destruction of red blood cells. Hemolysis can occur due to different causes and leads to the release of hemoglobin into the bloodstream. Normal red blood cells (erythrocytes) have a lifespan of about 120 days. After they die they break down and are removed from the circulation by the spleen.

What does acute hemolytic transfusion reaction stand for?

An acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AHTR), also called immediate hemolytic transfusion reaction, is a life-threatening reaction to receiving a blood transfusion.

What are the risks of a transfusion reaction?

A transfusion is defined as an infusion of whole blood or any one of its components. Transfusions like any other medical intervention have benefits and risks. Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one of the possible complications from transfusions. Hemolysis is described as rupture of red blood cells and leakage of their contents.

How does properdin work in an acute hemolytic transfusion?

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. It is usually related to ABO blood group incompatibility – the most severe of which often involves group A red cells being given to a patient with group O type blood. Properdin then binds to complement C3 in the donor blood, facilitating the reaction through the alternate pathway cascade.

What causes delayed hTR in a blood transfusion?

Delayed HTRs are characteristically caused by a secondary immune response to an antigen on the donor’s RBCs: if a patient had been immunized a long time before, the titer of an irregular alloantibody may have decreased so that it cannot be found by antibody screening or cross-match at the time of transfusion.