What are the four ABO discrepancies?
The table that follows provides four useful categories. Weak, missing reactions (including mixed field) in the forward (red cell) typing. Unexpected reactions in the forward (red cell) typing. Weak or missing reactions in the reverse (serum) typing.
What are the different ABO discrepancies?
Group I – Discrepancies that are associated with unexpected reactions in the reverse grouping. Group II – Discrepancies that are associated with unexpected reactions in the forward grouping. Group III – Discrepancies between forward and reverse grouping caused by protein or plasma abnormalities.
What kind of discrepancies are there in ABO blood group detection?
1.1 To resolve ABO and Rh blood group discrepancies. 1.2 Blood group discrepancies exist when the reaction in the forward group (red cells) does not match the reactions in the reverse grouping (plasma/serum), when expected reactions are weak or negative, or if the previous and current results do not match.
What are common technical errors resulting to ABO discrepancies?
Technical/Clerical errors leading to ABO discrepancy were noticed in 12 (9.3%) cases. The most frequent cause of ABO discrepancies in forward grouping was subgroups of A Antigen (44.6%) and in reverse grouping was cold autoantibody (23.9%). There were 11 (8.4%) cases with alloantibodies.
How do you fix ABO discrepancies?
In this situation, the discrepancy can be resolved by washing and re-suspending patient RBCs in saline, followed by repeat forward typing with anti-A and anti-B.
How do you reverse blood typing?
The patient’s serum is mixed with known red cells in a test tube. A specified number of drops of patient serum are placed into each of three properly labeled tubes. A specified number of drops of known A1 cells are added to the A tube, and a specified number of drops of known B cells are added to the B tube.
What is forward and reverse typing?
Forward typing- A blood typing procedure whereby patient red blood cells are mixed with Anti-A and Anti-B reagents. Reverse typing – A blood typing procedure where patient serum is mixed with reagent A cells and reagent B cells. The results should be the opposite of forward typing.
What causes ABO discrepancies?
Possible causes of an ABO discrepancy due to mixed-field RBC reactivity include recent out-of-group transfusion, stem cell transplantation, A subgroup (especially A3 subgroup), fetomaternal hemorrhage, and chimerism. Reverse ABO typing uses commercial RBCs combined with patient plasma.
How do you resolve acquired B?
Patient Results This ABO discrepancy can be resolved by testing patient plasma with patient red blood cells. Patients who are truly group A, without any true B antigen, will demonstrate a negative auto control.
What is detected in reverse typing?
Reverse typing refers to the testing of a patient’s serum for the presence of ABO antibodies. The patient’s serum is mixed with known red cells in a test tube. A specified number of drops of patient serum are placed into each of three properly labeled tubes.
What is reverse typing?
Reverse typing – A blood typing procedure where patient serum is mixed with reagent A cells and reagent B cells. The results should be the opposite of forward typing. Serum – The straw-colored fluid remaining when blood is clotted.
What is a common cause of acquired B phenomenon?
Usually, Acquired B occurs when the RBCs from a blood group A patient come in contact with bacterial enzymes known as “deacetylases.” These enzymes, commonly carried by bacteria that live in the colon, catalyze the removal of the acetyl group from the residue that gives the A antigen its specificity, N- …
What are the different types of Abo discrepancies?
ABO discrepancies can be classified into the following categories: Group 1 : problem with reverse grouping (unexpectedly weak / absent) = weakly-reacting / missing antibodies in patient’s serum Group 2 : problem with forward grouping = weak / missing antigen expression on patient’s RBCs
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What causes an ABO blood group discrepancy?
ABO blood Group System: ABODiscrepancies: • ABO discrepancies happen when there is no match in results between forward and reverse grouping(Cell type and Back type). • Since production of ABO antigens is genetically controlled, they are less vulnerable toproblems than does the production ofABO antibodies.
How to tell if a patient has an ABO?
This patient forward types as a group B, but reverse types as a group AB. (A group B patient should have anti-A. This patient demonstrates neither anti-A nor anti-B, similar to an AB patient). Further workup is necessary to determine the ABO type since the forward and back typing do not match.