What does the Hippo pathway do?

Pathway Description: Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self renewal. In addition, dysregulation of the Hippo pathway contributes to cancer development.

How is the Hippo pathway activated?

Extensive studies have revealed a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic signals that can activate the Hippo pathway, including cell–cell contact, stiffness of the extracellular matrix, stress signals, and cell polarity (reviewed in [2,11,32–34]).

What does YAP do?

YAP1 (yes-associated protein 1), also known as YAP or YAP65, is a protein that acts as a transcriptional regulator by activating the transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation and suppressing apoptotic genes.

Which protein controls hippo YAP pathway?

Hippo-YAP/TAZ Pathway. In mammals, the core Hippo pathway is largely characterized by Serine/Threonine kinases; mammalian Sterile 20-related 1 and 2 kinases (MST1 and MST2; orthologs of Drosophila Hippo [Hpo]) and Large tumor suppressor 1 and 2 kinases (LATS1 and LATS2; orthologs of Drosophila Warts [Wts]) (Figure 1).

What is YAP signaling?

YAP/TAZ are primary sensors of the cell’s physical nature, as defined by cell structure, shape and polarity. YAP/TAZ activation also reflects the cell “social” behavior, including cell adhesion and the mechanical signals that the cell receives from tissue architecture and surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM).

What is YAP pathway?

The Hippo-YAP pathway relays diversified extracellular and intracellular signals, including cell density, cell polarity, mechanical cues, ligands of G-protein-coupled receptors, cellular energy status, and orchestrates cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and differentiation and stemness.

How is the Hippo signaling pathway involved in cell growth?

Organ growth relies on several processes occurring at the cellular level, including cell division and programmed cell death (or apoptosis). The Hippo signaling pathway is involved in restraining cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis.

Which is part of the Hpo signaling pathway does fat activate?

Fat activates Hpo through the apical protein Expanded (Ex; FRMD6/Willin in mammals). Ex interacts with two other apically-localized proteins, Kibra ( KIBRA in mammals) and Merlin (Mer; NF2 in mammals), to form the Kibra-Ex-Mer (KEM) complex.

Which is the official name for the Hippo Taz protein?

The gene TAZ produces the protein tafazzin. The official gene name for the Hippo TAZ protein is WWTR1. Also, the official names for MST1 and MST2 are STK4 and STK3, respectively. All databases for bioinformatics use the official gene symbols, and commercial sources for PCR primers or siRNA also go by the official gene names.