## What is sine wave pattern?

A sine wave is a geometric waveform that oscillates (moves up, down or side-to-side) periodically, and is defined by the function y = sin x. In other words, it is an s-shaped, smooth wave that oscillates above and below zero.

## What does hyperkalemia look like on ECG?

Early changes of hyperkalemia include tall, peaked T waves with a narrow base, best seen in precordial leads ; shortened QT interval; and ST-segment depression. These changes are typically seen at a serum potassium level of 5.5-6.5 mEq/L.

What are the 4 types of waves seen in an ECG?

The Normal ECG The waves on an ECG include the P wave, Q wave, R wave, S wave, T wave and U wave. Interval: The time between two specific ECG events.

### How many waveforms are in an ECG?

There are five waves in total found in an ECG complex: P wave. Q wave. R wave.

### What is sine wave with example?

A sine wave shows how the amplitude of a variable changes with time. The variable could be audible sound for example. A single pure note is a sine wave, although it would sound a very plain and flat note indeed with none of the harmonics we normally hear in nature.

What potassium level is fatal?

According to the Mayo Clinic, a normal range of potassium is between 3.6 and 5.2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) of blood. A potassium level higher than 5.5 mmol/L is critically high, and a potassium level over 6 mmol/L can be life-threatening.

## What are signs of high potassium?

What are the symptoms of hyperkalemia (high potassium)?

• Abdominal (belly) pain and diarrhea.
• Chest pain.
• Heart palpitations or arrhythmia (irregular, fast or fluttering heartbeat).
• Muscle weakness or numbness in limbs.
• Nausea and vomiting.

## How can you tell the difference between P waves and T waves?

P-Wave T-Wave
‘P’ wave is the first wave in an ECG and is a positive wave. It indicates the activation of the SA nodes. ‘T’ wave too is a positive wave and is the final wave in an ECG though sometimes an additional U wave may be seen. It represents ventricular relaxation.

How long is a normal T wave?

The DURATION of the T Wave is 0.10 to 0.25 seconds or greater. The AMPLITUDE of the T Wave is less than 5 mm. The SHAPE of the T Wave is sharply or bluntly rounded and slightly asymmetrical. A T Wave always follows a QRS Complex.

### What are the characteristics of sine wave?

There are five characteristics of AC power; Amplitude, Cycles, Frequency, Peak to Peak, and RMS.

### What is the sine wave pattern?

Sine wave pattern. Overview. The sine wave pattern is one of the manifestations of severe hyperkalemia. The sine wave pattern depicts worsening cardiac conduction delay caused by the elevated level of extracellular potassium. The morphology of this sinusoidal pattern on ECG results from the fusion of wide QRS complexes with T waves.

What is EKG with no P waves?

Internal Medicine – Hospital-based practice. On an ekg if you have absent p waves most often it means you have atrial fibrillation, or atrial flutter. On an ekg if you have absent p waves most often it means you have atrial fibrillation, or atrial flutter.

## What does an U wave mean on an EKG?

The ‘U’ wave is a wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG). It is the successor of the ‘T’ wave and may not always be observed as a result of its small size. ‘U’ waves are thought to represent repolarization of the Purkinje fibers. However, the exact source of the U wave remains unclear.