What does PAX5 positive mean?
Pax5 immunohistochemistry shows robust nuclear staining, and has become a valuable tool in the diagnosis and subclassification of lymphomas. Pax5 staining is positive in most Hodgkin and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and also precursor B-cell lymphoblastic neoplasms.
Is PAX5 a cancer?
PAX5 mutations in B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma The PAX5 gene, which encodes the B-cell specific activator protein, is one of the most important factors in determination of B-cell development. This gene is the main target of somatic mutations in acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).
What does nodular sclerosing mean?
Nodular sclerosis is a subtype of classical Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by sclerosis, diagnostic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells and other tumour cells displaying a “lacunar” type morphology. The architectural pattern consists of grouped lacunar cells in lymphoid nodules surrounded by collagen bands.
What is CD10 positive?
The CD10 positive stromal cells are present at the cancer cells invasive front suggests the interaction between breast cancer cells and CD10-positive stromal cells. Moreover, presence of CD10 on stromal cells positively correlates with nodal metastasis, tumor grade, tumor size, lymph node and worsening prognosis.
Is nodular sclerosis curable?
Nodular sclerosing Hodgkin lymphoma is often curable, but the treatment is challenging. In addition, late side effects may occur and lifelong monitoring is needed.
What is CD10 negative?
Cases belonging to the first group, i.e. high CD10 expression, were defined as CD10-positive, while cases falling in the second group, i.e. low CD10 expression, were considered as CD10-negative. Definition of CD10-positive and CD10-negative ALL.
What causes Nodular sclerosis?
Causes and Risk Factors Epstein-Barr virus infection: Infection with the virus that causes mononucleosis is common. Family history: NSHL is more common in those who have a family history of the disease, but it’s not certain if this is due to heredity or instead common infection with the Epstein-Barr virus.
How long do you have to live with Stage 4 lymphoma?
Stage 4. Almost 50 out of 100 people (almost 50%) survive for 5 years or more after they are diagnosed. These figures show that more people with stage 2 diffuse large B cell lymphoma survive for 5 years or more compared to people with stage 1 disease.
Is there a connection between PAX5 and malignancy?
While the functional dose of PAX5 has a clear connection to human malignancy, there is limited evidence for that heterozygote loss of PAX5 have a dramatic effect on the development and function of B-cell progenitors. One possible explanation comes from the finding that PAX5 mutated B-ALL often display complex karyotypes and additional mutations.
How is PAX5 part of the regulatory network?
Our data reveals that PAX5 belong to a regulatory network frequently targeted by multiple mutations in B-ALL shedding light on the molecular interplay in leukemia cells. The use of modern high throughput DNA-sequencing has dramatically increased our ability to identify genetic alterations associated with cancer.
What happens if you lose function of PAX5?
These mutations often result in partial rather than complete loss of function of the transcription factor. While the functional dose of PAX5 has a clear connection to human malignancy, there is limited evidence for that heterozygote loss of PAX5 have a dramatic effect on the development and function of B-cell progenitors.
How is PAX5 part of a functional transcription factor network?
One possible explanation comes from the finding that PAX5 mutated B-ALL often display complex karyotypes and additional mutations. Thus, PAX5 might be one component of a larger transcription factor network targeted in B-ALL.